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Sport Games _VERIFIED_

A sports video game is a video game that simulates the practice of sports. Most sports have been recreated with a video game, including team sports, track and field, extreme sports, and combat sports. [1] Some games emphasize actually playing the sport (such as FIFA, Pro Evolution Soccer and Madden NFL), whilst others emphasize strategy and sport management (such as Football Manager and Out of the Park Baseball). Some, such as Need for Speed, Arch Rivals and Punch-Out!!, satirize the sport for comic effect. This genre has been popular throughout the history of video games and is competitive, just like real-world sports. A number of game series feature the names and characteristics of real teams and players, and are updated annually to reflect real-world changes. The sports genre is one of the oldest genres in gaming history.[2]

Sport Games

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Sports games involve physical and tactical challenges, and test the player's precision and accuracy.[3] Most sports games attempt to model the athletic characteristics required by that sport, including speed, strength, acceleration, accuracy, and so on.[3] As with their respective sports, these games take place in a stadium or arena with clear boundaries.[3] Sports games often provide play-by-play and color commentary through the use of recorded audio.[3]

Sports games sometimes make use of different modes for different parts of the game. This is especially true in games about American football such as the Madden NFL series, where executing a pass play requires six different gameplay modes in the span of approximately 45 seconds.[3] Sometimes, other sports games offer a menu where players may select a strategy while play is temporarily suspended.[3] Association football video games sometimes shift gameplay modes when it is time for the player to attempt a penalty kick, a free shot at goal from the penalty spot, taken by a single player.[3] Some sports games also require players to shift roles between the athletes and the coach or manager. These mode switches are more intuitive than other game genres because they reflect actual sports.[3]

Older 2D sports games sometimes used an unrealistic graphical scale, where athletes appeared to be quite large in order to be visible to the player. As sports games have evolved, players have come to expect a realistic graphical scale with a high degree of verisimilitude.[3] Sports games often simplify the game physics for ease of play, and ignore factors such as a player's inertia.[3] Games typically take place with a highly accurate time-scale, although they usually allow players to play quick sessions with shorter game quarters or periods.[3]

Sports games sometimes treat button-pushes as continuous signals rather than discrete moves, in order to initiate and end a continuous action. For example, football games may distinguish between short and the long passes based on how long the player holds a button. Golf games often initiate the backswing with one button-push, and the swing itself is initiated by a subsequent push.[3]

Arcade sports games have traditionally been very popular arcade games. The competitive nature of sports lends itself well to the arcades where the main objective is usually to obtain a high score. The arcade style of play is generally more unrealistic and focuses on a quicker gameplay experience. However the competitive nature of sports and being able to gain a high score while competing against friends for free online, has made online sports games very popular. Examples of this include the NFL Blitz and NBA Jam series.

Simulation games are more realistic than arcade games, with the emphasis being more on realism than on how fun the game is to pick up and play. The simulation-style tend to be slower and more accurate with normal rules while arcade games tend to be fast and can have all kinds of ad-hoc rules and ideas thrown in, especially pre-2000s. Examples of this include the NBA 2K and Madden NFL series.

A sports management game puts the player in the role of team manager. Whereas some games are played online against other players, management games usually pit the player against AI controlled teams in the same league. Players are expected to handle strategy, tactics, transfers, and financial issues. Various examples of these games can be found in the sports management category.

Since Track & Field (1983), various multi-sport video games have combined multiple sports into a single game. Wii Sports and Wii Sports Resort are recent examples. A popular sub-genre are Olympic video games, including Track & Field and other similar titles. Multi-sport tournaments are becoming the basis for computer games.

Sports-based fighting games are titles that fall firmly within the definitions of both the fighting game and sports game genres, such as boxing and wrestling video games. As such, they are usually put in their own separate subgenres. Often the fighting is far more realistic than in traditional fighting games (though the amount of realism can greatly vary), and many feature real-world franchises or fighters. Examples of this include the Fight Night, UFC 2009 Undisputed, EA Sports UFC and WWE 2K series.

Sports video games have origins in sports electro-mechanical games (EM games), which were arcade games manufactured using a mixture of electrical and mechanical components, for amusement arcades between the 1940s and 1970s. Examples include boxing games such as International Mutoscope Reel Company's K.O. Champ (1955),[4] bowling games such as Bally Manufacturing's Bally Bowler and Chicago Coin's Corvette from 1966, baseball games such as Midway Manufacturing's Little League (1966) and Chicago Coin's All Stars Baseball (1968),[5] other team sport games such as Taito's Crown Soccer Special (1967) and Crown Basketball (1968),[6][7] and air hockey type games such as Sega's MotoPolo (1968)[8] and Air Hockey (1972) by Brunswick Billiards.[9]

The earliest sports video game dates backs to 1958, when William Higinbotham created a game called Tennis for Two, a competitive two-player tennis game played on an oscilloscope. The players would select the angle at which to put their racket, and pressed a button to return it. Although this game was incredibly simple, it demonstrated how an action game (rather than previous puzzles) could be played on a computer.[10] Video games prior to the late 1970s were primarily played on university mainframe computers under timesharing systems that supported multiple computer terminals on school campuses. The two dominant systems in this era were Digital Equipment Corporation's PDP-10 and Control Data Corporation's PLATO. Both could only display text, and not graphics, originally printed on teleprinters and line printers, but later printed on single-color CRT screens.

Ralph Baer developed Table Tennis for the first video game console, the Magnavox Odyssey, released in 1972. While the console had other sports-themed game cards, they required the use of television overlays while playing similarly to board games or card games. Table Tennis was the only Odyssey game that was entirely electronic and did not require an overlay, introducing a ball-and-paddle game design that showcased the potential of the new video game medium. This provided the basis for the first commercially successful video game, Pong (1972), released as an arcade video game by Atari, Inc.[4]

Numerous ball-and-paddle games that were either clones or variants of Pong were released for arcades in 1973. Atari themselves released a four-player cooperative multiplayer variant, Pong Doubles (1973), based on tennis doubles.[11] In the United States, the best-selling arcade video game of 1973 was Pong, followed by several of its clones and variants, including Pro Tennis from Williams Electronics, Winner from Midway Manufacturing, Super Soccer and Tennis Tourney from Allied Leisure (later called Centuri), and TV Tennis from Chicago Coin.[12]

In Japan, arcade manufacturers such as Taito initially avoided video games as they found Pong to be simplistic compared to more complex EM games, but after Sega successfully tested-marketed Pong in Japan, Sega and Taito released the clones Pong Tron and Elepong, respectively, in July 1973,[13] before the official Japanese release of Pong by Atari Japan (later part of Namco) in November 1973.[14] Tomohiro Nishikado's four-player Pong variant Soccer was released by Taito in November 1973,[13][15] with a green background to simulate an association football playfield[16] along with a goal on each side.[13] Another Taito variant, Pro Hockey (1973), set boundaries around the screen and only a small gap for the goal.[17]

Tomohiro Nishikado wanted to move beyond simple rectangles to character graphics, resulting in his development of a basketball game,[13] Taito's TV Basketball, released in April 1974.[14][18] It was the earliest use of character sprites to represent human characters in a video game.[19] While the gameplay was similar to earlier ball-and-paddle games,[13] it displayed images both for the players and the baskets, and attempted to simulate basketball. Each player controls two team members, a forward and a guard; the ball can be passed between team members before shooting, and the ball has to fall into the opposing team's basket to score a point.[20][21] The game was released in North America by Midway as TV Basketball, selling 1,400 arcade cabinets in the United States, a production record for Midway up until they released Wheels the following year.[22][23] Ramtek later released Baseball in October 1974,[14] similarly featuring the use of character graphics.[24]

In March 1978, Sega released World Cup, an association football game with a trackball controller.[29][30] In October 1978, Atari released Atari Football,[31] which is considered to be the first video game to accurately emulate American football;[32] it also popularized the use of a trackball, with the game's developers mentioning it was inspired by an earlier Japanese association football game that used a trackball.[33][34] Atari Football was the second highest-earning arcade video game of 1979 in the United States, below only Taito's shoot 'em up blockbuster Space Invaders (1978), though Atari Football was the only sports game among the top ten highest-earners.[35] 041b061a72


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