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Everett Bailey
Everett Bailey


This debate is not completely new. It was for the first time onthe table of the League of Nations in 1936 discussing huge propagandaconducted by Nazi German over radio frequencies. (24) The debate hadprogressed during the following decades and created two different schools oflaw: the broad responsibility school and the narrow responsibility school;(25) where the former explanation understands responsibility of an individualas a responsibility of the state whereas the latter understands the stateresponsibility unaffected by actions of individuals. However, the authorevolves the topic in the following chapter into a term "war-mongeringpropaganda by a state" based on the mentioned discussion in the Leagueof Nations. (26) He analyzes that any activity that encourages population ofa foreign country or the state itself to make the first step towards wardeclaration, invasion, naval blockade or assistance to armed bands organizedon the territory of a sovereign state are considered as an act of war. (27)The case when United States supported Nicaragua rebels has been used as anexample that training a cyber rebel units to fight their government incyberspace is understood similarly. (28) However, such conclusion appliesvery conservatively and does not easily include information operationsespecially because they are hardly attributable in general as they areconducted carefully, wisely, silently and patiently for a long time. It mustbe attributed to a state and to its military authorities to be understood asan act of war even though the "troll armies" seems to be exactlysuch an exposure of military capability when organized so precisely, however,the wide distribution of each unit, decentralized leadership, unprovableinvolvement of state or military authorities, but high effectiveness is atoughly defendable hybrid strategy.


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