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Everett Bailey
Everett Bailey

Lecture Notes On Composite Materials



An original mechanical formulation to treat nonlinear orthotropic behavior of composite materials is presented in this book. It also examines different formulations that allow us to evaluate the behavior of composite materials through the composition of its components, obtaining a new composite material. Also two multiple scale homogenization methods are given, one based on the analytical study of the cells (Ad-hoc homogenization) and other one, more general based on the finite element procedure applied on the macro scale (upper-scale) and in the micro scale (sub-scale).




Lecture Notes on Composite Materials


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A very general formulation to simulate the mechanical behavior for traditional composite structures (plywood, reinforced concrete, masonry, etc.), as well as the new composite materials reinforced with long and short fibers, nanotubes, etc., are also shown in this work.


Typical phenomena occurring in composite materials are also described in this work, including fiber-matrix debonding, local buckling of fibers and its coupling with the overall buckling of the structure. Finally, several numerical examples that evaluates the qualities and capabilities of the general model formulated are offered in this book.


Bridge footing plays an important role in transferring the load from the bridge superstructure to the soil underneath. It might need structural strengthening due to insufficient flexural or shear capacity, while in most cases punching shear failure is the dominant failure mode. The most commonly applied retrofit strategy is to enlarge the dimensions of the footings, where dowel splice connections are installed to connect additional concrete to the existing footing. However, the splice connection is not practical. In this paper, a series of upgraded enlarging footing retrofit methods for spread footing using FRP systems are proposed, including an active strengthening system and three passive strengthening systems. For all systems, the connection at the interface is achieved by composite action, instead of dowel connection. Thus, the new connection type is simple and effective. In the active system, circular external prestressing strands were installed. While in the passive systems, the exterior surface of the retrofitted footing was wrapped with different materials including CFRP, BFRP, and steel. A total of Eighteen footings were simulated using Abaqus CAE, and the punching shear capacity of each model was calculated. The results of this investigation suggest that both the active and the passive retrofit systems can significantly improve the punching shear capacity of the spread footing.


N2 - Bridge footing plays an important role in transferring the load from the bridge superstructure to the soil underneath. It might need structural strengthening due to insufficient flexural or shear capacity, while in most cases punching shear failure is the dominant failure mode. The most commonly applied retrofit strategy is to enlarge the dimensions of the footings, where dowel splice connections are installed to connect additional concrete to the existing footing. However, the splice connection is not practical. In this paper, a series of upgraded enlarging footing retrofit methods for spread footing using FRP systems are proposed, including an active strengthening system and three passive strengthening systems. For all systems, the connection at the interface is achieved by composite action, instead of dowel connection. Thus, the new connection type is simple and effective. In the active system, circular external prestressing strands were installed. While in the passive systems, the exterior surface of the retrofitted footing was wrapped with different materials including CFRP, BFRP, and steel. A total of Eighteen footings were simulated using Abaqus CAE, and the punching shear capacity of each model was calculated. The results of this investigation suggest that both the active and the passive retrofit systems can significantly improve the punching shear capacity of the spread footing.


AB - Bridge footing plays an important role in transferring the load from the bridge superstructure to the soil underneath. It might need structural strengthening due to insufficient flexural or shear capacity, while in most cases punching shear failure is the dominant failure mode. The most commonly applied retrofit strategy is to enlarge the dimensions of the footings, where dowel splice connections are installed to connect additional concrete to the existing footing. However, the splice connection is not practical. In this paper, a series of upgraded enlarging footing retrofit methods for spread footing using FRP systems are proposed, including an active strengthening system and three passive strengthening systems. For all systems, the connection at the interface is achieved by composite action, instead of dowel connection. Thus, the new connection type is simple and effective. In the active system, circular external prestressing strands were installed. While in the passive systems, the exterior surface of the retrofitted footing was wrapped with different materials including CFRP, BFRP, and steel. A total of Eighteen footings were simulated using Abaqus CAE, and the punching shear capacity of each model was calculated. The results of this investigation suggest that both the active and the passive retrofit systems can significantly improve the punching shear capacity of the spread footing.


You will be able to find information about Introduction to composite materials along with its Course Objectives and Course outcomes and also a list of textbook and reference books in this blog.You will get to learn a lot of new stuff and resolve a lot of questions you may have regarding Introduction to composite materials after reading this blog. Introduction to composite materials has 5 units altogether and you will be able to find notes for every unit on the CynoHub app. Introduction to composite materials can be learnt easily as long as you have a well planned study schedule and practice all the previous question papers, which are also available on the CynoHub app.


All of the Topic and subtopics related to Introduction to composite materials are mentioned below in detail. If you are having a hard time understanding Introduction to composite materials or any other Engineering Subject of any semester or year then please watch the video lectures on the official CynoHub app as it has detailed explanations of each and every topic making your engineering experience easy and fun.


Topology optimization is increasingly being used to generate efficient structural systems. To date, majority of the work has been limited to finding the optimal distribution of isotropic materials. The use of non-isotropic materials, such as Fibre Reinforced Polymer (FRP) composites, has become increasingly popular within the civil infrastructure industry. As such, there is a need to extend current topology optimization methods to handle non-isotropic materials and hence be applied in the design of composite structures. Topology optimization of orthotropic composite laminate structures is relatively more complex, as it requires the concurrent optimization of material distribution and material properties. For large-scale civil structures, the sizeable number of design variables means that simultaneous optimization may not be feasible. As such, a sequential framework is proposed, whereby the material distribution and material property optimization are decoupled in a multi-level approach. Based on the notion that the optimal distribution of material aligns with the trajectory of the structures load path, the topology optimization problem is first solved using a fixed isotropic material, and then the material properties optimized at the laminate element level. The validity of this approach has been addressed in existing literature however its pertinence has been shown to be dependent on the nature of the design variables as well as loading condition. This work will look to explore and validate the sequential optimization framework for civil structures.


N2 - Topology optimization is increasingly being used to generate efficient structural systems. To date, majority of the work has been limited to finding the optimal distribution of isotropic materials. The use of non-isotropic materials, such as Fibre Reinforced Polymer (FRP) composites, has become increasingly popular within the civil infrastructure industry. As such, there is a need to extend current topology optimization methods to handle non-isotropic materials and hence be applied in the design of composite structures. Topology optimization of orthotropic composite laminate structures is relatively more complex, as it requires the concurrent optimization of material distribution and material properties. For large-scale civil structures, the sizeable number of design variables means that simultaneous optimization may not be feasible. As such, a sequential framework is proposed, whereby the material distribution and material property optimization are decoupled in a multi-level approach. Based on the notion that the optimal distribution of material aligns with the trajectory of the structures load path, the topology optimization problem is first solved using a fixed isotropic material, and then the material properties optimized at the laminate element level. The validity of this approach has been addressed in existing literature however its pertinence has been shown to be dependent on the nature of the design variables as well as loading condition. This work will look to explore and validate the sequential optimization framework for civil structures.


AB - Topology optimization is increasingly being used to generate efficient structural systems. To date, majority of the work has been limited to finding the optimal distribution of isotropic materials. The use of non-isotropic materials, such as Fibre Reinforced Polymer (FRP) composites, has become increasingly popular within the civil infrastructure industry. As such, there is a need to extend current topology optimization methods to handle non-isotropic materials and hence be applied in the design of composite structures. Topology optimization of orthotropic composite laminate structures is relatively more complex, as it requires the concurrent optimization of material distribution and material properties. For large-scale civil structures, the sizeable number of design variables means that simultaneous optimization may not be feasible. As such, a sequential framework is proposed, whereby the material distribution and material property optimization are decoupled in a multi-level approach. Based on the notion that the optimal distribution of material aligns with the trajectory of the structures load path, the topology optimization problem is first solved using a fixed isotropic material, and then the material properties optimized at the laminate element level. The validity of this approach has been addressed in existing literature however its pertinence has been shown to be dependent on the nature of the design variables as well as loading condition. This work will look to explore and validate the sequential optimization framework for civil structures. 041b061a72


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